# The Head Injury Criterion (HIC) and Crash Tests

In the 1950s, cars were efficient killing machines. There were no such things as airbags, safety belts, anti-lock breaking, crumple zones or plastic knobs. Ralph Nader pressured car manufacturers in the 1960s and 1970s to produce safer cars - and it worked.

This section is about how we analyse crash test data and how it relates to the average value of a function, using integration.

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