10. Reduction Formulae
by M. Bourne
You may have noticed in the Table of Integrals that some integrals are given in terms of a simpler integral. These require a few steps to find the final answer.
Reduction formulae are integrals involving some variable `n`, as well as the usual `x`. They are normally obtained from using integration by parts.
We use the notation `I_n` when writing reduction formulae.
Given the reduction formula
`I_n=intsin^nx\ dx` `=-1/ncos\ x\ sin^(n-1)x+(n-1)/nI_(n-2),`
find `intsin^4x\ dx`.
For interest, here are the graphs of the function `y=sin^4 x` and its integral.
Graph of `y(x)=sin^4 x`, and its integral `y=3/8 x - 1/4 sin(2 x)+ 1/32 sin(4 x)` (I've used `K=0`).
We are given that if
Find `inttan^3x\ dx`.