# 1. Definitions: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

by M. Bourne

## Exponential Functions

Exponential functions have the form:

`f(x) = b^x`

where *b* is the **base** and *x* is the **exponent** (or **power**).

If *b* is greater than `1`, the function continuously increases in value as *x* increases. A special property of exponential functions is that the **slope** of the function also continuously increases as *x* increases.

It is common to write exponential functions using the carat (^), which means "raised to the power". Computer programing uses the ^ sign, as do some calculators.

Other calculators have a button labeled *x*^{y} which is equivalent to the ^ symbol.

### Example of an Exponential Function

Consider the function `f(x) = 2^x`.

In this case, we have an exponential function with base `2`. Some typical values for this function would be:

x |
`-2` | `-1` | `0` | `1` | `2` | `3` |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

f(x) |
`1/4` | `1/2` | `1` | `2` | `4` | `8` |

Here is the graph of `y = 2^x`.

Graph of `y=2^x`.

**Notice:**

- As
*x*increases,*y*also increases. - As
*x*increases, the slope of the graph also increases. - The curve passes through `(0, 1)`. All exponential curves of the form
*f*(*x*) =*b*^{x}pass through `(0, 1)`, if `b > 0`. - The curve does not pass through the
*x*-axis. It just gets closer and closer to the*x*-axis as we take smaller and smaller*x*-values.

Continues below ⇩

## Logarithmic Functions

A **logarithm** is simply an **exponent** that is written in a special way.

For example, we know that the following exponential equation is true:

`3^2= 9`

In this case, the** base** is `3` and the **exponent** is `2`. We can write this equation in **logarithm form** (with identical meaning) as follows:

`log_3 9 = 2`

We say this as "the logarithm of `9` to the base `3` is `2`". What we have effectively done is to move the exponent down on to the main line. This was done historically to make multiplications and divisions easier, but logarithms are still very handy in mathematics.

The **logarithmic function** is defined as:

`f(x) =log_b x`

The **base** of the logarithm is *b*.

The 2 most common bases that we use are base `10` and base *e*, which we meet in Logs to base 10 and Natural Logs (base *e*) in later sections.

The logarithmic function has many real-life applications, in acoustics, electronics, earthquake analysis and population prediction.

### Example 1

Write in logarithm form: `8 = 2^3`

### Example 2

Write in exponential form: `log_10 1000 = 3`

### Example 3

Find *b *if

`-4=log_b(1/81)`

### Exercises

1. Evaluate `y = 9^x` if `x = 0.5`

2. Express `8^2= 64` in logarithmic form.

3. Express `log_11 121 = 2` in exponential form.

4. Determine the unknown: log_{10}
0.01 = *x*

5. Determine the unknown, *b*:

`log_b(1/4) = -1/2`

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